Biodegradable polymers are environment friendly alternative to preserve fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions.
As a necessary alternative to the ecological viability and balance, there was intensive development of renewable raw materials and accelerated production of biodegradable plastics and composting products.
What Is Biodegradation?
Biodegradation is the biochemical process of conversion of material into the water, biomass, carbon dioxide or methane in terms of microorganisams activity.
The process of degradation of polymers consists of two stages.
The first is the process of reducing the polymer chain by breaking carbon bonds in terms of the effect of heat, humidity and the presence of microorganisms.
The second is part of the process of degradation which begins when the lower molecular chains become carbon energy sources of microorganisms.
This process was confirmed in the full sense of the biodegradation only when compounds become food and microorganisms are transformed into water, biomass or carbon dioxide.
Total world production of biodegradable and composting plastic in the world in a year 2008 is estimated at 600 thousand tons.
The renewable bio-based biopolymers, such as corn starch and polyester polilactonic acid accounts for about 85% of total world production.
What is composting?
Composting is a biological process in which the controlled temperature conditions and activities of certain microorganisms (composting cycle), leads to decomposition of bio-polymers on the basis of the same speed as the decomposition of other things of organic waste, which formed water, carbon dioxide and biomass.
The resulting organic compost is completely environmentally neutral in terms of agriculture and has the same properties as other materials.
Biodegradable bio-based polymers can also be defined as composting ones only if they meet very stringent requirements of European standard EN 13 432:
- Degree of biodegradation> 90% in the period of 180 days
- Degree of disintegration of polymers> 90% in the period of 90 days
Shopping and waste bags, plates, forks, spoons, knifes, drinking straw, diapers and other products which are produced according to the EN 13432 standard -
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